A root canal is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or becomes infected. During a root canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed. Without treatment, the tissue surrounding the tooth will become infected and abscesses may form. "Root canal" is the term used to describe the natural cavity within the center of the tooth. The pulp or pulp chamber is the soft area within the root canal. The tooth's nerve lies within the root canal.
Root canal treatment is not painful and can save a tooth that might otherwise have to be removed completely. The infection at the centre of a tooth (the root canal) is caused by bacteria that live in the mouth and invade the tooth. This can happen after tooth decay, leaky fillings, and damage to a teeth as a result of trauma, such as fall. Root canal treatment is only required when dental X-rays show that the pulp has been damaged by a bacterial infection. The pulp will begin to die if it's infected by bacteria, allowing the bacteria to then multiply and spread. The symptoms of a pulp infection include pain when eating or drinking hot or cold food and drink, pain when biting or chewing, a loose tooth. As the infect ion progresses, these symptoms often disappear as the pulp dies. Your tooth then appears to have healed, but the infection has in fact spread through the root canal system.